Friday, November 29, 2019
Implant Dentistry Essay A systematic review was performed on studies investigating current issues in implant dentistry. The Journal of Dental Research and Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontology were searched from 2004 to 2010 using ScienceDirect. Criteria for inclusion included: (1) studies of implant placement; (2) observations regarding permanent dentures; (3) data considering bone-to-implant healing; and (4) results of implant procedures in elderly patients. This electronic search of the literature yielded over 2,000 abstracts. Recently published papers revealed the importance of significant bone-to-implant contact as well as positive implant surface roughness. Successful implant placement; that is to say, osseointegration, increases with the use of bone growth factors, as well as various surface treatments. The studies selected indicated that, among both patients and professionals, dental implants are often the preferred method of treatment. From replacing a single tooth to allowing the placement of full dentures, evidence-based research in implantology has led to both an ever increasing number of treatment options, and longer lasting results for dental patients. Introduction to Implant Dentistry As a profession, the practice of dentistry goes back as just as far as the practice of medicine. Dentistry itself can be thought of as a specialization of medicine Ã¢â¬â dealing primarily with the oral cavity, jaw, and neck in a manner similar to many medical specialists. The practice of implant dentistry, on t he other hand, is rather new Ã¢â¬â and is based in a tremendous amount of evidence-based research. From an outcome perspective, implantology is the most predictable of dental procedures. We will write a custom essay sample on Implant Dentistry specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Implant Dentistry specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Implant Dentistry specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer The usage of dental implants was performed in the US as early as 1950, but it was not until the 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s, with the discovery of the ossification potential of titanium, that implants became a staple of dental specialists. Implant technology is invaluable to the millions of baby boomers with periodontal disease or other dental problems who desire never to fumble with uncomfortable dentures or adjust to an uncomfortable bridge. It is for these reasons that Implant Dentistry has been of ever increasing importance to the dental profession. The usage of Dental Implant Systems is quite unlike many other areas of dentistry insofar as that there has been a great deal of research into all aspects of its practice. Imaging technology, materials research, and new instrumentation have streamlined the progression from diagnosis to treatment to such a great degree that outcomes are typically predictable and successful. In light of the relatively recent nature of Implant DentistryÃ¢â¬â¢s appearance on the scene, its evaluation with respect to the future of the dental profession is due. Past For as long as mankind has been in existence, so too have teeth. Throughout a lifetime primary teeth emerge and are lost, by permanent dentition. Implant dentistry, the replacement of permanent dentition, finds its roots in the advances in metallurgy of the late 1800s. Gold and Platinum, as well as porcelain were all used in attempts to anchor implants to the Jawbone. Titanium, the metal around which implant dentistry is built today, was first used in the 1980s. A Swedish surgeon, Per-Ingvar Branemark discovered that titanium could anchor to bone predictably, without causing inflammation or serious rejection risks. This pioneering discovery paved the way for implant dentistry based around osseointegration. Implant systems today, revolving around the usage of titanium screws as dental implants, are based in the discoveries of Branemark. Within the past twenty years, the science behind osseointegration has been mastered to such a degree that everything from success rates to average recovery times can be known. Other relatively recent improvements, including changes in surgical techniques and advances in bone grafting have even more greatly improved the art of Implantology. Medical imagining enhancements and the development of new implant products keep the practice growing at a pace for the 21st century. The research and technology that makes implants both safer and longer-lasting exists on the open market today. Present Today, technology and discretionary spending by baby boomers are responsible for the remarkable growth of implant dentistry in the last 10 years. Baby boomers will be the richest senior-citizen generation in our history, and the implant business, like all others, is driven by the power of the dollar. While demand for implants is surging, the demand for the standard procedures or a geriatric population is not sustainable. The market will adjust and dentists today must prepare for future trends. Although possible today, it is unlikely that 10 or 15 years down the line any practice will be easily maintained revolving around implants alone. The high per-capita wealth, and relative abundance of the age group mean that business models based a round their existence will be futile ten years down the road. The next generation to be in need of dental care, those born in the late 60Ã¢â¬â¢s and early 70Ã¢â¬â¢s benefitted from better pediatric dental care. The overall incidence of periodontal disease and tooth loss should be lower, compared to that of the baby boomer generation. A long term plan for the future must be based in the short term implementation of a multitude of implant-based procedures. Therefore, implant dentistry should become a regular service in a general dentistÃ¢â¬â¢s office. This mainstreaming of the implant business will allow general practitioners access to individuals in need of one, two, or even three placed implants Ã¢â¬â a need which typically arises out of necessity as the result of an accident or injury. Though the overall market for implants will shrink, the core demand will not. Implants are now widely accepted by dental practitioners and patients as superior to bridgework and other procedures to replace missing teeth. As a result, the investment in new technologies and products will continue by implant companies. Today there is no other discipline that can boast the ability to replace a body part to perfection as implant dentistry. Implants are predictable, life-long replacements which, even if damaged, can be fixed with relative ease. Comparing the lifetime of a dental implant to that of a hip or knee replacement is illuminating. There is no reason why an implant might fail, but both knee and hip replacements usually last about 15 years. In the future, implant technology and bone growth factors will advance the profession even further. Research There are several realms within dentistry that are in one way or another connected to implants. Even research not directly connected to the procedures related to implantology is revealing. Older patients today experience a great increase in their overall quality of life after being exposed to the benefits of implant surgery. A transition from removable entures to implant dentures allows the elderly to eat more Ã¢â¬ËnormallyÃ¢â¬â¢ as well as more nutritiously. New research today revolves around both materials and bone growth factors. Longitudinal research is also especially applicable to implant dentistry, as it based in the reactions of bone to foreign materials. Technology Surface treatments and nanotechnology that improve the rate of osseointergation are shaping the future. These changes are exciting but they also present a problem as new implant designs and surfaces often are clinically untested by manufacturers. Long-term research and clinical use will help make these products more predictable. It is in this way that manufacturers earn trust amongst dental professionals. General Practice Until relatively recently, primarily oral surgeons were the ones placing dental implants. It wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t until the late nineties that periodontists began placing implants as well. Today it is the general dentist who places, by a large margin, the majority of dental implants. Interestingly enough, the training necessary in order to perform a dental implant is rather reasonable. The American Association of Implant Dentistry believes that after 300 hours of didactic training, as well as additional clinical instruction, both general dentists and specialists should feel comfortable, and well equipped enough to place dental implants. Implantology is thus relatively accessible to all members of the dental profession. Specialists The origins of the placement of dental implants lie with the oral surgeon. A surgeon by profession, the future of advanced procedures in implant dentistry lay with the specialists. As with all of dentistry, the more challenging cases are often referred to those who specialize in a particular aspect of dental medicine. In particular, the placement of permanent dentures is unlikely to be often performed by general dentists. Requiring the placement of either four or six implants at the same time, precision is required during surgery, as is a great deal of monitoring of recovery. Although it is unlikely that specialists will be able to maintain practices built around implant dentistry, it is probable that the art of implant placement will continue to be an integral part of any advanced and pecialized practice. Future The introduction of titanium implants to those practicing implantology could be considered the development with the most gravity of the past 20 years. Titanium integrates with bone very well. Titanium implants are used in order to assure an excellent fusion of bone to the surface of the implant. Ever improving designs and the emergence of bone grafting materials have enabled dentists to treat an ever increasingly large patient pool. Many patients who are treated today would have never been considered as successful candidates for dental implants. The success rates and overall predictability of implants have allowed huge advances not only in placement, but in recovery as well. Current research in dental implants has even carried over to the medical practice of orthopedics. Implants As the placement of dental implants becomes more and more mainstream a procedure, it will be integrated into the practices of more and more general dentists. Patients will in the future be able to rely on their family dentists to perform more and more involved services and treatments. Although implants may eventually become the bread and butter of a general dentistry practice, the relative decrease in population of high-worth geriatric patients could again push patients toward more mainstream procedures. It is more likely that a general dentistry practice will gravitate toward single-tooth replacements. The unique size and financial well-being of the baby boomer generation has helped spur tremendous implant growth. Thanks to evidence-based research done primarily for this patient pool, many benefits may be afforded to another group entirely. The benefits of implants should appeal to a younger generation of professionals, ever more conscious of appearance Ã¢â¬â even defining themselves by their aesthetic characteristics. The emergence of cosmetic dentistry as an economically viable field is owed, in a large part, to this fact. Today both men and women look to plastic surgeons for a variety of procedures. The fact that appearances are important to this demographic indicates that aesthetic dentistry will greatly appeal to them, when a procedure is necessitated. Even today, part of the aesthetic makeover desired by many thirty-somethings includes veneers or implants to achieve a nearly perfect smile. The locus of oral-health and cosmetic surgery lies in the work of the Implant dentist. Functionality alone is seldom the lone motivator in the desire for partial or full-mouth implants. Many patients, adjusting from dentures, are now able to chew certain foods and thus enjoy a better quality of life thanks to dental implants, but this relatively modest improvement is often considered a side benefit to either the convenience or aesthetics of ever-present implants. Elderly patients are likely elated when they are finally rid of the bridge that never fit right or the discomfort and embarrassment it could have caused. For this reason, both dental professionals and patients must plan to approach implants as the manifestation of a discretionary spending decision. In the future, bonding, bridging, and splinting teeth will continue to exist for they are the most effective means of maintaining a low cost to functionality ratio. Implants will continue occupy a middle-ground between vanity and convenience Ã¢â¬â two excellent motivators for a patient with disposable income. It is unfortunate that even though patients today enjoyed relatively effective pediatric dental care, many still consider the entirety of oral health to be a luxury rather than a necessity. This is understandable when the work of a dentist is compared to that of a medical specialist. Cardiologists make life and death decisions, and this fact strikes a chord with patients much more than the dentist who aims to strike fear into the heart of the patient who may eventually suffer from periodontal disease. When a bone is broken, patients have no choice but to confront the issue. The same cannot be said for a tooth with a dead nerve in a state of decay. Almost everything done by general dentists, and even most specialists, is not a service performed as an essential healthcare expenditure. Dentists will continue to perform primarily noncritical care with the aim of fixing or preventing acute problems as well as providing restorative and cosmetic improvements which support the preferences of patients. The implant market today is growing due to the greatly increased success rates of implants. Patients who are told that they require a root canal have several options. The cheapest procedure is simply to have the tooth pulled. This is common amongst members of lower socioeconomic status. The standard procedure is the root canal itself. A premium procedure, likely to appeal to patients with a lifetime ahead of them, lies with the dental implant. It is a more permanent solution that is often times more successful as well. A single-tooth implant is recognized today as the best means of replacing a tooth. Gone are the days when a three-tooth bridge is considered king. Candidates for root canals today often prefer to remove the tooth and get a bridge or implant. Patients are ever-more informed of the variety of pros and cons of dental procedures thanks to information readily available on the internet. Assuming successful osseointegration, the dental implant has no possible eventual downfalls. More and more patients therefore are opting for the implant, a procedure which is more aesthetically pleasing, more effective, and more successful in the long term than any other dental procedure. A bridge, for example, requires the modification of the anterior and posterior teeth to which the bridge itself will be bonded. In the future, more and more patients will opt for implants over bridges due to a desire not to cut down healthy teeth Sole-Provider Dentistry Competition within the dental profession has driven many to invest a great deal of time and money in recruiting patients and maintaining positive patient-provider rapport. In order to serve more and more patients, dentists today must market themselves as providers. Accepting patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ dental insurance plans is another means of establishing or maintaining relations. The trend in the past was for general dentists to perform fillings, root canals, and bridges. Today this is changing, and the future of dentistry will lay with the effective integration of a wide range of services into a general practice, rather than simply writing a referral to a specialist. With dentistry in particular, patients prefer to stay with the dentist with whom they grew up. For this reason, a provider capable of performing a multitude of novel procedures benefits patients with easier access to care, as well as benefits directly, thanks to the ability to perform more complicated and more profitable procedures more often. In order for this transition to be possible, dental implant companies today often offer courses and training in order to familiarize general dentists with these novel procedures. Simple exposure shows that patients today have more options than ever before. That being said, in order to actually perform implants, a great deal of continuing education is required. As dental education changes, allowing young graduates to focus on what once used to be only specialty training while still in dental school, many graduating dental tudents will be able to offer more than dentists from even ten years ago. This increased earnings potential helps keep dentistry an ever-changing profession. For those who studied implant dentistry early, the immediate future looks quite good. Improving technology may soon outpace what is needed by a dental professional. Digital imaging for example, although useful to dental professionals when compared to radiographs, may not be incredibly valuable to the public. Pro cedures performed today can be done without the luxury of digital imaging. In convincing a patient to opt for a dental implant, this is where digital imaging has been instrumental. Computer-manipulated images, highlighting, and likely scaring, patients regarding issues in oral health, is not always beneficial to the patient. Instead of building up the luxury aspect of the experience of getting an implant, a better option lies in aiming to keep the overall cost to perform an implant low Ã¢â¬â patients could greatly benefit from an implant at the cost of a three-unit bridge. Technology drives up the price difference between procedures, and in order for implants to remain a common procedure, they must be in demand by patients. The price difference, driven by the integration of technology, pushes patients on the fence about implants toward opting for bridges or root canals. It is for all of these reasons that the future of implant procedures will be performed in the general dentistÃ¢â¬â¢s practice. Following all other dental procedures, the difficult cases will continue to be referred to specialists, but for patients needing single-tooth replacement, the prospect of the procedure being performed by a family dentist grants the possibility of greater outcomes to the ongoing oral care of the patient. Implants are at the core of the future of dentistry. The economics of the procedures will change as it becomes more commonly available, but their usefulness will continue as the most effective long term solution to many problems in oral health.
Monday, November 25, 2019
The Importance of Being Earnest Challenge Constructions Essays The Importance of Being Earnest Challenge Constructions Essay The Importance of Being Earnest Challenge Constructions Essay a way of life which has no future2. Both protagonists are shown to be maintaining double lives, Ernest in town and Jack in the country', Wiled presents these dual lives as manifestations exulting from the constraining social pressures: the need to keep up appearances. Ernest, the doppelgnger, is the improper younger brother, described as getting into, all kinds of scrapes' whilst we see Jack as the one with the, high moral tone' as it is, his duty to do so'. Unlike Andrew J. Webber, who claims that doppelgngers present an image of homosexual desired, Eve Spooky Sedgwick suggests that Not everyone has a lover of the same sex, but everyone, after all, has a self of their own sex6 pointing to the reductionism nature of set definitions of sexuality. This reductionism notion is echoed in Wilds portrayal of the confining nature of social laws which he demonstrates through the double lives that the protagonists are, to an extent, forced in to and the vast divide demonstrated between their personal and social identities (Ernest versus Jack). Shortly before he died Wiled echoed the phrase of Algerian, the truth is rarely pure and never simple7, once again drawing attention to the fluid nature of life and truth and embodying the concept of oversimplification in terms of social customs and sexual definitions. Wiled rather strengthens the imagery of restraining social rules through his presentation of characters simply playing into the roles that are constructed for them by society, hence portraying a lack of individuality and from this a loss of identity. Initially, Wiled presents Condoled is presented as demanding romance in public, l hope you will always look at me Just like that, especially when there are other people present  suggesting a the idea of romance being verified only by others knowing about it. Her request can be seen as a form of role playing: putting forward he image of a loving couple, soon to be engaged however this questions their true devotion. This is ironic due to romance and love supposedly holding associations of excitement and mystery focused between two people alone and hence suggests that romance is yet another social construct. The ironic notion of this presentation of romance is shown in a negative and restrictive light due to the connotations of freedom, fresh starts and purity that are related to the word romance. Similarly it can be seen as shadowed by the theme of the restrictive notion of set definitions of defined sexuality. Through this Wiled once again paints the image of a hypocritical society, suggesting that we should challenge social constructs. The character of Jack is presented by Wiled as difficult to pin down into a specific role; a social abnormality. Wiled uses the humor of Jack being found in a handbag to draw attention to his lack of fit in society, l was in a handbag [sic] An ordinary handbag, in fact. . This lack of fit into defined social roll or class in this case, gives Jacks character a sense of individuality and in our individualistic culture, this helps the audience or reader to empathic with Jack, and in a more modern reading of the text, critics can empathic lack of acceptation of those with individualistic ill defined sexualities. His humble origins result in potential rejection from the privilege of higher society, you can hardly imagine that l Would allow our [sic] Daughter to marry into a cloakroom, through this likening of a lack of social fit to a cloakroom, set roles and classes within society and pushed to the conclusion that they indeed should question the constructions of society, an ideology still relevant in the society f today. Ultimately, The Importance of Being Earnest shows the contrast between the reductionism and confining rule of society against the liberal realism of personal identity against social identity. This was shown to be due to the unrealistic lack of fit of high social expectations, Jack and Algerian were reduced to fantastical double lives, to mere roles and stereotypes. Every person is different and cannot be reduced to stereotypes, hence why the set definitions of sexuality should be challenged, a single label cannot make a person as we are complex beings. Wiled presents this educationist ideology as trivial, hypocritical and finally laughably pointless. Bibliography: Oscar Wiled, The Importance of Being Earnest, The Norton Anthology of English Literature, Volume E, Stephen Greenbelts, (W. W. Norton Company, Inc. 1734-1777. Word count: 1361. Summary of Joseph Bristol, A complex multiform creature: Wilds Sexual Identities, in The Cambridge Companion to Oscar Wiled, deed. By Peter Arab (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006), up. 195-218. Available via Cambridge Collections Online. The name of Wiled commonly conjures recollections of him as a playwright, cultural artic and often his ultimate plunge into disrepute as a committed homosexual a notion many consider buried within his literary works. Even today we find Wilds works applicable, particularly in regards to questions of sexual identity. In the past (circa nineteen eighties) Wilds life was seen as embarrassing and students were often under pressure to disregard homoerotic undertones: a notion embodied by Alfred Douglas phrase, Love that may dare not speak its name. However following the relatively recent movement of lesbian and gay studies into the line of social acceptability, we can now look for elements of homoerotic patterning. Many critics debate how the Homosexual genre came into being and how it cannot conclusively apply to Wilds works, this brings to mind the question of how much we apply ourselves to historical specificity and sexual being. In Christopher Crafts essay, Allis Bunny he draws out the ambiguity behind the character Leghorns alibi to escape his family -a regularly ill phantom friend named Bunny. This creation can be seen as an unimportant character based on a hypochondriac childhood friend of Wilds or a symbolism of a more erotic tie between Jack and Ernest. Craft points to how the opposing interpretations are continuously, exchanged, accelerated, derailed Cross- switched by Wiled, mirroring the word pun in the title, The Importance of Being E(a)Ernest. This approach can be congratulated on its lack of reductionism regarding suggestive puns and the social implications that may lie beneath. A homosexual interpretation of Wilds plays could be seen as sculpting the ideology within literature and implicating what it means to be homosexual or gay. According to Michael Faculty these are modern labels as they assume sexuality is based on period Sodomys was not considered a gender-specific homosexual act, but simply a sexual behavior. The terms Hetero and Homosexual had not yet been defined. Around the eighteen-nineties thinkers such as Henries Lyrics et al. Ere attempting to classify human sexuality, coining the term, sexual invert: defined as a female soul that could inhabit a male body and vice versa. This term was used at Wilds trial as an attempt to discredit him. Following his term incarcerated, he considered himself merely a, pathological problem in the eyes of German scientists Quantum mutates, suggesting that before he had not prev iously considered himself defined specifically s a homosexual or invert. Alan Sniffled suggests we should be careful not to presume that Wiled, as an effeminate man, could be definitively comprehended as a homosexual. He points to the fact that many believe that, queerness Will out, but that this is not the case. Many commentators look too hard for the unlikely tones of homoerotic, for example between Algerian and Jack, though realistically they both want to marry heiresses. Sniffled claims this over analysis may be because our stereotypical notion of male homosexuality derives from Wiled though ultimately Wiled could not intelligibly be defined as a specific type of sexual deviant. This notion is supported by Deed Cones Journalistic reports of court proceedings at Wilds trial. Cohen noted how newspapers were unable to specify sexual acts of Wiled, but did all they could to present him with traits that we may now deem, homosexual. Though based on Wilds unmanly self-presentation and the aesthetic Movement, this sensationalist reporting had the result of the creation of a new definition of sexuality based on, personality not, practice. Eve Spooky, in support of anti-homophobic eating of Wilds The Importance of Being Ernest, urges us to take into account a different model on which Wilds exploration of male-male relationships could be based. She claims Wilds works are structured mainly around a shift between generations of lovers, emanating from, pederasts love in the process of being superseded By the homo/hetero imposition. In Lawrence Damsons essay on The Portrait of Mr. W. H. , Damson argues that the play demonstrated Wilds objection to the increasing cultural obligation that held Men to their ties of the nuclear family whilst by contrast advocating same-sex desire. This clear demonstration caused Henry Laborers to set the conflicting precedent in the Criminal Law Amendment Act of 1885 that prevented sexual acts between men, both in public and in private. In contrast, Sniffled argues that this cannot be the case, since Damson suggests that there was a specific homosexual undertone in Mr. W. H. whilst in reality, our modern definition of homosexuality has evolved over the last decade, often in key relation to Oscar Wiled. He states that the lack of definition of the form of love in Mr. W. H. could be based more on the censored nature of pederasts love in Victorian England. This notion is supported by Linda Dowling, who asserts that in the period of Victorian Hellenize, Wilds portrays pederasts love in a fully unapologetic way. She points to how he in his own trial stated, in reference to Love that may dare not speak its name, stated It is not unnatural. It is literary. Following on Bristol points to the contradictory nature of assuming that Wilds works, specifically The Picture of Dorian Gray, are entwined with themes of Love that may dare not speak its name. Ultimately presenting the notion of deceiving looks: Doormans beautiful visage against his sinful nouns men? . This ill defined friendship only ever leads to negative consequences, as supported by Jeff Announce who points out, expression of homosexual desire cancels, rather than clarifies the definition of the character through whom it is conducted. We also must not disregard the Hellenic origins of Doormans name held in parallel with his outward appearance that seems almost Hedonistic and suggests nothing of his sinful nature. In a society without the strict structure of Victorian England, perhaps it would have been possible to discover what it means to be A employ multiform creature. Ultimately Wilds writings can be seen as attaining to Hellenic ideals, he openly mocks societies model of the nuclear family to the point where even outright remarks about the lack of Joy in a marriage are ignored. In A Woman of No Importance Mrs. Alonso states that her husband is a sort of promissory note. to which she is replied, l believe you are really very happy in your married life. . Yet throughout Wilds theme of societal protest, there is never a clear assertion to our modern understanding of homosexuality. Word count : 1,089. Overall Word Count: 2,494.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Protection lighting of aircraft - Thesis Example Despite these major advancements in knowledge, a National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) study for the 5 year period from 2007 to 2011, says that on average 22,600 fires are caused in the US by lightning each year. In addition to property damage of $ 451 million, these fires cause on average 9 deaths, 53 serious injuries (Ahrens). Lightning protection measures do not prevent lightning strikes but help reduce damage caused by them. Dr. Richard Kithil, the President of the National Lightning Safety Institute is quoted on their website as saying, Ã¢â¬Å"Lightning is a capricious, random and unpredictable event. Its physical effects include current levels sometimes in excess of 400 kA, temperatures up to 50,000 degrees F and speeds approaching one-third the speed of light. Globally some 2000 on-going thunderstorms cause about 100 lightning strikes to earth each second. Lightning prevention or protection in an absolute sense is impossible. A diminution of its consequences together with incremental safety improvements is all that is possibleÃ¢â¬ (Kithil). Most parts of the US experience 20 to 80 thunderstorm days in a year. Parts of South America and Africa have 100 to 200 thunderstorm days in a year. On a typical thunderstorm day, there could be as many as 10,000 lightning strikes to ground (NLSI Report). The Office of Emergency Management for New York City reports that the Empire State Building is struck by lightning on average 25 times a year and in one particular thunderstorm, it was hit 8 times in 24 minutes (OEM- NYC). The fact that the iconic building remains undamaged by these lightning strikes shows that well designed and applied lightning protection measures serve to minimize the risk of damage due to lightning strikes. 1.3) Airplanes fly in close proximity to thunderclouds and should be vulnerable to lightning strikes. Some 19,500 commercial aircraft are estimated to be
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Analysis of ICT strategic plan - Essay Example However, the latest developments of ICT in the sector of fisheries have resulted in drastic changes in the overall life of fishermen. Various initiatives in the ICTs have greatly expanded and developed fisheries technologies to the farmers of Australia. ICTs are widely being implemented and are used by fisheries sectors for various purposes such as resource assessment and in commercialization purposes. The ICTs strategic plan implemented in Australia have enabled the Australian fishermen to exploit various opportunities such as the use of Global Positioning System for location finding and navigation. ICT has also reduced risk to fishermen through information exchange and emergency warning. At present, the fishermen have access to web-based data/ information along with networking sources (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2007). Analysis of Whether the ICT Strategic Plan Be Re-Assessed or Continued For Additional 3-5 Years During November 2007, The Australian Fi sheries Management Authority (AFMA) was liable for the development of ICT strategic plan and roadmap. The plan would stress on 2005 Strategic IT Review and further it would provide vital initiatives to AFMA which would be implemented over the period of next three years i.e. from 2008 to 2011. AFMA was supposed to invest approximately AUD 7.3 million for the implementation of ICT strategic plan, during these three year period (Australian Government, 2007). The investment program would include sixteen distinct initiatives which would cover forty nine recommendations. These initiatives comprise: 1. Improvement of procurement as well as contract management process and performance 2. To bring improvement related to provided service within industry 3. Governance process 4. Identity as well as access management 5. Develop business as well as IT alignment along with incorporating the process of reengineering related to the business of AFMA 6. Staff upskilling Program 7. Develop Ã¢â¬Ëon-th e-boat dataÃ¢â¬â¢ collection 8. Implementation of Business Intelligence Capability 9. Implementation of Corporate Records Management 10. Data Warehouse Department 11. Finalizations of Pisces Program including Customer Relationship Management (CRM) 12. Rationalization of Application 13. Information Security 14. E- Business 15. Infrastructure and Application Rationalization and Technology Baseline 16. IT Market Testing Source: (Australian Government, 2007) The above stated initiatives were developed by grouping various recommendations into core areas capability which would deliver substantial benefits to AFMA. These initiatives were mainly grouped under three main capabilities namely; improved services provided to AFMA stakeholders and its customers, improved data management and information use and, lastly improved effectiveness of the organization which would support AFMA service delivery and information stewardship. Furthermore, the initiatives were to be undertaken on three vital functions related with the fisheries management, these consist of monitoring and research, compliance and licensing and quota management (Australian Government, 2007). Monitoring and Research AFMA was able to record 12% improvement in conformity with the vessel monitoring system across the Commonwealth fishing areas during the year 2008 when compared to 2007. AFMA research contract management system, Ã¢â¬ËOmnifishÃ¢â¬â¢, has enabled AFMA to closely monitor and also target research providers to improve
Monday, November 18, 2019
EDUC - Assignment Example Effects of the policy to professional practice 2.2. Strength of the policy 2.3. Weakness of the policy 2.4. Factors undermining the policy 1. Policy Synopsis 1.1. Identity of the policy This study is a discussion of Federal Australian education policy. This paper will concentrate on the policy we have identified, entitled Ã¢â¬Å"Transformative ICT and Education PolicyÃ¢â¬ . The code reference for this study is ICT4E. It was formed and began operating effectively from June 28, 2005, as an education policy in Australia that is accessible online. The policy is available on the URL http://apo.org.au/node/25007. It is downloadable as a html web page or a portable or protected data file. 1.2. History and background The policy emerged from an analysis of the elements of the current generation. The society was being changed using Information Technology and communication. The Federal Australian government discovered that Information and communication technology favored other important aspec ts of development such as the economy, work environment, residential homes and businesses, the affairs of the government, medical sector and transportation. It however neglected the area of education. The government then decided to make it a policy in country to provide support to the education sector by application of information technology. In 2004, the government began the strategic plan of making the transformative educational ICT policy a reality in the entire nation of Australia (Ball, 2008). In the recent and the current educational sector, the educational policy has been addressing the issue of computer proficiency to transform the students from novices to experts. Students use information technology to share educational resources, to communicate effectively and to socialize with others. The policy offers influential centre stages in the position of advanced studies. This study focuses on improving design at universities. The implementation of the education policy on Informa tion and Communication Technology works in three different levels of priority (Tomei, 2010). 1.3. Aims of the policy The policy aims at improving the education quality among students in the education institutions. The main aim is to ensure that the composition of human resources is highly equipped for quality performance in work places. It also aims at improving the processes of research and educational trainings. This was to promote the green agenda while reducing the cost of document printing on papers. Minimal paper use was seen as a means of protecting the environment from degradation, because it implied reduced cutting of trees (Pelgrum & Law, 2003; Abbott, 2001). 1.4. Funding Arrangement and structure The federal Australian government of Australia identified the financial aspect of the policy as a critical challenge. The challenge was to do with establishment of ICT environments in all learning institutions with the international standards of set up. Funding of the program off icially takes place through Digital learning revolution with an aim to create a direct contact of one on one. The educational sector conducts massive procurement of the devices and softwares at discounted rates, to reduce the size of the budget (Jimoyiannis, 2011). 1.5. Implementation Process Top of Form The implementation of this project makes use of 5 projects to enable teachers as well as the school administration to make the optimal utilization of ICT in the learning environment such as a typical classroom. One of the implementation projects
Saturday, November 16, 2019
The Impact Of The Complex Interdependence Politics Essay As we all know , complex interdependence is a concept developed by Robert keohane and Joseph Nye in order to demonstrate that states are completely tied together in various aspects of their national resources , whether they be economic , military , agricultural , o political amongst others. The main characteristics of Complex Interdependence are three , in first place multiple channels , because these facilitate actions between communities either they be interstate or transnational. In second place low salience , this shows the use of force as a non viable tool in international relations and offers diplomacy and policies as substitute routes , and finally in third place we have issue areas and regimes , which show us a wide agenda of topics that link states together in order to reach their objectives , in other words the line between domestic and foreign policy becomes blurred in this case, as realistically there is no clear agenda in interstate relations.. If we analyze these three points we can see this as an attempt to synthesize elements of realism with liberalism. For millennia, a large and well-equipped army was all that was required to make ones voice heard and power felt on the international scene. As technologies evolved , the possession of a powerful economy and the threat of retaliation have proved as effective , if not more effective than the exposure of weapons and the threat of war. With the growing complexity of interdependence, fewer and fewer goals are achieved by relying exclusively on military threats but also on raw economic incentives. The utility of hard power methods has in general shrunk , as it is less likely than in the past to produce the desired outcomes. The current definition of International Relations is the study of human interactions through national borders and the factors that affect those interactions. But if we look back at the origins of International Relations as a field of study in the early 20th century we can see that it was mainly centered on Great Britains affairs. After the first world war International Relations appeared as a field of study in order to understand the war , its main causes and consequences. In the early 1920s universities across Great Britain and the United States founded faculties and departments devoted on this new and vital subject that was International Relations , because experts saw the dawn of a globalization and the future ties of the states with each other , this was conceived as liberal internationalism. The first academic institution dedicated to the study of international relations was Aberystwyth University founded in 1919 in Wales. The concept of complex interdependence was created in 1977 , after the world had seen two world wars and a number of conflict situations between nations , the devastating consequences that these acts of violence left on mankind where proof of the intrinsic connections one state has with another , even if they are from different religious or political backgrounds , or if they are located on the other side of the globe. The truth is that we are all linked with each other one way or another, and that is what complex interdependence made emphasis on. This opened up a whole new world in the study of international relations , showing how dominant nations such as United States , Great Britain , and Russia where involved in interdependent relations with under developed nations. The growing rate of transnational flows and the increase in channels of communication are creating an uprising in interdependence between states and nations , these relations influence them in many ways not only referring to material needs or objects but also in political and ideological concepts. Todays complex interdependence has become a multifaceted interdependence , one that includes a diversity of issues from cultural problems to environmental concerns , far from what it used to be , solely dependant on economic objectives and the support of military strength. This in terms of international relations shows us that the evolution of international relations has gone from military and economic dominance to an environment of general concern referring to as much aspects of one notion as possible ; everything, from the strength of our economy to the safety of our cities, to the health of our people, depends on events not only within our borders, but half a world away. [Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ ] We must see the opportunities and the dangers of the interdependent world in which we are clearly fated to live President of the United States Bill Clinton during a press conference in 1999 -. Environmental issues are becoming very important in transnational relations today , further more than any other issue contemplated by complex interdependence. For example the biological problems we have nowadays with bacterias , viruses , and other living organisms that can have disastrous consequences to the nation that receives them. Like the A1H1 virus , that spawned in Mexico and shortly after it spread throughout the globe causing thousands of deaths and creating a tense situation for Mexicos leaders , because they were held responsible for allowing the exit of such virus to rest of the world. In the twenty-first century, British foot and mouth disease or the SARS disease originating in Hong Kong cause fear the world over , precisely because of bacteriological interdependence and the speed at which the diseases propagate through out the planet with incredible ease. Another aspect that is going through everybodys minds as far as international relations goes is ecology and all topics related , ecological interdependence is only now taking on its current importance as a result of the major advances in technology , manufacturing , transportation and mass consumption during the course of the twentieth century. One result of these qualitative changes is that any alteration in a local environment can have both major ecological and political repercussions on a global scale , creating a conservationist mentality across the globe. For example, the deforestation of the Amazon jungle has had serious repercussion as far away as Italy and Japan as well as more locally in Brazil. As a result of phenomena such as this , environmental interdependence is having increasing political impact on national societies. Japan is sponsoring tree reforestations worldwide , providing governments with monetary incentives to plant trees and creating awareness within the popul ation to help with these issues. The complex interdependence has created a major boost in international relation in the 21st century , by creating better and deeper relationships amongst nations , but certain academics have seen a growing problem in international relations in the new millennia ; while the central problem of international relations in the 20th century was states that were too strong like Germany , Imperial Japan , and the Soviet Union , the primary problems of international relations in the 21st century are states that are too weak for example Afghanistan , Pakistan , Mexico , amongst others said Thomas Friedman , of the New York times. This is mainly because these states are going to need more detailed and consistent help from the global community , this is a positive aspect for these developing nations , but it could be seen as a negative for stronger states , because of the setbacks these relations can create in their domestic economies and issues. Todays international relations experts fully understand that globalization has taken over , and that the only way nations are going to improve their qualities of life , improve their domestic economies , and be seen as a strong and potential hot spot for external investments is to create deep rooted bonds with states worldwide. Nations used to have pretty much basic foreign policies , mostly limited to imports and exports , but thanks to the breakthroughs in international relations , most foreign policies have expanded exponentially in the matters of agriculture , fiscal aid , terrorism , the environment , health , and education. After the world trade center attacks on September 11 , 2001 , the world realized that terrorism is a major threat for everyone , because it can happen to anyone , anywhere , at anytime , therefore it became a top priority topic in international relations , leaded almost entirely by the United States and Great Britain , these new alliances wanted to create a worldwide network of nations fighting against terrorism , in order to avoid such regrettable acts such as the ones lived the citizens of New York City. Another topic created taken account in recent years is the war on narcotics processing and international distribution. One clear example is the agreement between drug enforcement agencies form the United States of America and Colombia , also known as the plan Colombia which basically consists in D.E.A cooperation with police training and financial aid. Without complex interdependence international relations would never be as important and as relevant as it is today , because without it nations would still be focused on domestic issues , and wouldnt be as concerned of other aspects of nations problems , because if it wasnt for the current interdependence situation states would only be interested in military power and economic benefits they could obtain from other nations. The 21st century is only beginning and the problems that the world and its nations are going to face to face are only revealing their selves, this is going to mean more work for embassies , consulates , diplomats , and heads of state worldwide in order to join together in search for the greater good. WHICH IS THE IMPACT OF COMPLEX INTERDEPENDENCE ON THE EVOLUTION OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AS A DISCIPLINE AND WHICH ARE THEIR THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES FOR THE 21ST CENTURY? INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS ESSAY JULIO URIBE RESTREPO #200710122002 UNIVERSIDAD EAFIT MEDELLIN 2010
Wednesday, November 13, 2019
A circus is an arena for acrobatic exhibitions and animal shows. Usually circular and surrounded by tiers of seats for spectators, a circus may be in the open air but is usually housed in a permanent building or sheltered by a tent. The term circus is also applied to the performance itself and to the troupe of performers. The entertainment offered at a circus generally consists of displays of horsemanship; exhibitions by gymnasts, aerialists, wild-animal trainers, and performing animals; and comic pantomime by clowns. The first modern circus was staged in London in 1768 by Philip Astley, a former sergeant major in the English cavalry, who performed as a trick rider. Beginning with a visit to Paris in 1772, Astley introduced the circus in cities throughout continental Europe and was responsible for establishing permanent circuses in a number of European countries as well as in England. A circus was first presented in Russia in 1793 at the Winter Palace in Saint Petersburg. By the early 19th century several permanently based circuses were located in many larger European cities. In addition, small traveling shows moved from town to town in caravans of covered wagons in which the performers lived. The traveling shows were usually simple affairs, featuring a fiddler or two, a juggler, a ropedancer, and a few acrobats. In the early circuses such performers gave their shows in open spaces and took up a collection for pay; later, the performers used an enclosed area and began to charge admission. By contrast, the permanently-based circuses of Europe staged elaborate shows. In the earlier part of the 19th century a main feature of the permanent circus program was the presentation of dramas that included displays of horsemanship. The circus was introduced in the United States by John Bill Ricketts, an English equestrian who opened a show in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1792 and staged subsequent circuses in New York City and Boston, Massachusetts. President George Washington reportedly attended a Ricketts circus and sold the company a horse in 1797. The Ricketts circus remained in existence, with several name changes, through the first decade of the 19th century. Some of the outstanding companies in the early history of American circuses were the Mount Pitt circus and the troupes of the American animal tamer Isaac Van Amburgh, the American chemist and inventor Gilbert Spaulding, and the American clown Dan Rice. Throughout the 19th century the circus evolved in programming and
Monday, November 11, 2019
Which character do you think gives the most realistic portrayal of childhood? Both of these novels contain depictions of childhood. An important fact to keep aware of is that in DickensÃ¢â¬â¢ portrayal of childhood, there are adults present to mould Pip through his encounters with them, whereas Golding leaves his characters free from any guiding adult hand. PipÃ¢â¬â¢s sister being on Ã¢â¬Å"the rampageÃ¢â¬ when she felt Joe or Pip had done the slightest thing wrong, is different to RalphÃ¢â¬â¢s experience of childhood on the island as the closest thing he has to an adult guide is Piggy, who whilst undoubtedly more intelligent than the other boys, lacks the respect and authority an adult commands. Pip and Ralph are alike however in their longing for a lack of adults, Ã¢â¬Å"but then the delight of a realized ambition overcame him. In the middle of the scar he stood on his head and grinned at the reversed fat boy. Ã¢â¬ËNo grown ups!Ã¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬ Is what Golding tells us of Ralph, and similarly DickensÃ¢â¬â¢s Pip calls them all Ã¢â¬Å"toadies and humbugsÃ¢â¬ . Although these views both seem to concur that a lack of adults is definitely a good thing, they do differ somewhat, I do not believe Ralph would go so far as to call all adults Ã¢â¬Å"toadies and humbugsÃ¢â¬ and this is certainly to do with their different backgrounds. Ralph is a Home Counties lad with a father high up in the navy who knows that the queen has Ã¢â¬Å"a drawer full of mapsÃ¢â¬ , whereas Pip is the adopted son of a blacksmith and although RalphÃ¢â¬â¢s lifestyle may not necessarily have been glamorous, it was much more homely and welcoming than the one Pip enjoys. The two novels are also set over a greatly differing time span. Lord of the Flies lasts perhaps several weeks at the most, whereas PipÃ¢â¬â¢s childhood lasts several years in Great Expectations. Obviously this will play a part in how realistic their childhoods seem as we see no more than the blinking of an eye of RalphÃ¢â¬â¢s, but have a much more in depth viewing of PipÃ¢â¬â¢s. Adults mould Pip throughout his childhood, and the most important adults involved in this are Pumblechook, Mr Wopsle and PipÃ¢â¬â¢s sister. All of these have a tendency to look down on Pip, and it is for that reason that Joe is not included in the list, as he and Pip treat each other like equals. Ralph on the other hand has no guiding force behind him throughout all the time the reader knows him. Whereas Ralph is a very expressive child, he stands on his head and laughs and looks Ã¢â¬Å"goldenÃ¢â¬ , Pip is not, in the early stages of the book, free from the tyranny of his sister. So there is a crucial difference between the two novels in that Ralph and his companions are free to be children without adult ideals being laid upon them, whereas Pip is expected to be a child the way society expects him to be, Ã¢â¬Å"be grateful boy to them which bought you up by handÃ¢â¬ being a good example of this. A key aspect of childhood is Fear, fear of the dark, fear of the unknown and fear of adults to name but a few. Both authors work this aspect of childhood into their novels somehow. Dickens does this with MagwitchÃ¢â¬â¢s young man Ã¢â¬Å"a boy may lock his door, may be warm in bed, may tuck himself up, may draw the clothes over his head, may think himself comfortable and safe, but that young man will softly creep and creep his way to him and tear him open.Ã¢â¬ All this to scare Pip into getting him some Ã¢â¬Å"wittlesÃ¢â¬ and it works, from the language in that quote, it is obviously apparent that Dickens had a very good idea of childhood and itÃ¢â¬â¢s workings, on of the few things universal to children is that they do think bed to be the ultimate haven. Pip is scared by Magwitch into stealing from his sister, who he is already afraid of, and this is significant in that it shows Dickens had a very good grasp of what childhood was about, and is thus likely to have a very good portrait of childhood in his novel. Possibly even more significant than this is that Pip steals a file from Joe his trusted friend, and this also shows more understanding on DickensÃ¢â¬â¢ part about children, they do not discriminate between close friends and others to the extent older people do. And so we see the counter part to this in Lord of the Flies, when alone and with no adults on the desert island the children feel the need for a fire and steal PiggyÃ¢â¬â¢s glasses to light it. Piggy is RalphÃ¢â¬â¢s main ally on the island, and certainly Ralph is PiggyÃ¢â¬â¢s only friend, so the situation is much akin to the one in Great Expectations but we do not see the same level of remorse from Ralph. Instead of PipÃ¢â¬â¢s fearful Ã¢â¬Å"I held tight to the leg of the table under the cloth, with both hands, and awaited my fateÃ¢â¬ in anticipation of any retribution that may be dealt out, all that Golding says of the boys remorse at leaving Piggy blind and helpless is for Ralph to hand them back when done with them, and it is here that it seems as though Golding has a better understanding of children, he appreciates that their consciences are not yet fully developed as they are unable to grasp the implications of what they have done. The fear that grows apparent on the island however is not the same kind of fear as Pip experiences. One of the little-uns complains of Ã¢â¬Å"a beastieÃ¢â¬ , nonsense is the response he gets from Ralph, and yet Ã¢â¬Å"The vivid horror of this, so possible and nakedly terrifying held them all silentÃ¢â¬ . And it is here where the crux of the argument begins to form for DickensÃ¢â¬â¢ having the better portrayal of childhood. The Beastie is in fact symbolic of the horror humans will create on the island, and the rest of GoldingÃ¢â¬â¢s novel is also mostly symbolic, whereas Great Expectations isnÃ¢â¬â¢t. The natural reaction for Ralph and company to have is to try and ward of the beastie somehow, and thus the fire begins to become more than simply a rescue beacon. The relationships between characters is also a major part in the views we are offered of childhood. Golding uses the views of others to reveal aspects of the main characters, and so influence how we feel about them, PiggyÃ¢â¬â¢s view of Ralph and the others Ã¢â¬Å"Like a crowd of kids -Ã¢â¬ is supposed to make the reader feel that Piggy is far more mature, and that in turn Ralph is excessively immature, and childlike. DickenÃ¢â¬â¢s however uses PipÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective throughout the novel, and the language he uses differs greatly at the start as compared to the finish for the purposes of showing the transition between child and adult. For example Ã¢â¬Å"I religiously entertained that they had been born on their backs with their hands in their trouser pocketsÃ¢â¬ is clearly not the impression an adult would get from having dead brothers or sisters, and most likely not the way they would describe them. However at the end of the book the language use has progressed to statements such as Ã¢â¬Å"Oh, Joe, you break my heart! Look angry at me, Joe! Strike me, Joe! Tell me of my ingratitude. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t be so good to me.Ã¢â¬ This is a statement the younger Pip would have been incapable of making, ti shows the complex differences in language that Dickens appreciates children use as compared to adults. In Great Expectations Pip is not treated as an adult, he is treated as a particularly worthless child, and as such he forms negative opinions of the adult world he will have to grow into, Ã¢â¬Å"that ass PumblechookÃ¢â¬ being just one example of the way Pip views this world, however Dickens also understands that childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s attitudes change very quickly, as does Golding, and so when Pip obtains Ã¢â¬Å"Great ExpectationsÃ¢â¬ and Pumblechook starts acting up to him, then he decides that maybe Ã¢â¬Å"Pumblechook was a practical, sensible, good hearted fellowÃ¢â¬ . This is also shown in Lord of the Flies because although by the end Ralph and Jack are literally at each others throats, when making the fire at the start Ralph finds a log that looks too heavy, but gets the reply of Ã¢â¬Å"Not for the two of us!Ã¢â¬ And so Golding shows the reader a glimmer of hope that the two may get along well, but they donÃ¢â¬â¢t, and this demonstrates the inconsistency of children. Ralph has responsibility for the other boys on the island, and this causes him in many aspects to grow up. Instead of being completely child like and swimming, diving and running about, he gets worked up because the shelters havenÃ¢â¬â¢t been made and the other are incapable of concentrating Ã¢â¬Å"And they keep running off. You remember the meeting? How everyone was going to work hard until the shelters were finished?Ã¢â¬ This is not a very childlike statement, children get frustrated because they donÃ¢â¬â¢t get their own way, Ralph is not saying Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢m the leader and they donÃ¢â¬â¢t obey meÃ¢â¬ but instead worrying that the community is beginning to tear apart, a concern more voiced on tabloid letter pages than childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s conversations. Pip however has no such responsibility, admittedly while he does some chores set him by his sister, or his lessons under Mr WopsleÃ¢â¬â¢s great aunt Ã¢â¬Å"that preposterous femaleÃ¢â¬ , he is nowhere near as empowered as Ralph who has been voted to care for a few dozen boys. And so this also affects the childhood of the two we see, while Ralph had the easiest growing up previous to the novel (with his parents) as opposed to PipÃ¢â¬â¢s dead parents and harsh sister, he is given a far more demanding role to play. And the way he deals with it is not very childlike; in fact it comes to eventually represent the way a tired adult may feel, worn down, beginning to despair and wondering why on earth heÃ¢â¬â¢s taken the responsibility at all. And this is another key point to consider, GoldingÃ¢â¬â¢s children are literary metaphors for mankind, whereas Pip, although he teaches the reader about aspects of the human character, is not supposed to be representative of the whole human race, and so more likely to represent childhood better. Yet another fact to remember is that Golding and Dickens were writing in very different times. Dickens was writing in what was the height of Victorian England and was teaching about society in those days. Whereas Golding was writing after the World Wars and so was trying to tell a more global message. So his Ralph is, although a child, not necessarily entirely representative of one. Pip however is forced to be a child by the constraining presence of his sister, Pumblechook and eventually the bond apprenticing him to Joe, all things that represent Victorian society, and yet things that still apply today even if in a different form, such as parental control and discipline and mandatory education. Childhood on GoldingÃ¢â¬â¢s island is also not really something enjoyed particularly by Ralph and his peers, instead it is the littleÃ¢â¬â¢uns who are the children, Ralph and the other bigger boys find themselves in the positions of adults simply because they are the biggest ones on the island. Perhaps because they are not completely mature at the time this does not help them deal with the events that happen on the island. There is possibly a case for saying that Pip too, is no ordinary child and has to grow up very fast in his attempts to impress Estella and grows up even more rapidly once he has his expectations laid upon him. However this is most likely a part of his childhood akin to the beginning of school and as this has been a part of life for every child in the last hundred years and more, this is not something that can be argued as not being a part of childhood. And most certainly at the start of the novel Pip is a child plain and simple, with no more worries than his si sters Ã¢â¬Å"rampages. Another aspect of childhood to consider is trust and loyalty. Children are usually trusting unless something happens to make them otherwise. In Lord of the Flies, loyalty is shown by the twinÃ¢â¬â¢s and PiggyÃ¢â¬â¢s dedication to Ralph and their faith in him to get them through. Ralph however displays a special kind of loyalty, a loyalty to the good side of human nature and a deep trust in fair play. PipÃ¢â¬â¢s trust however is in Joe and his own learning, but the trust is very temporary with Joe, it is more of a mutual agreement to be equals. And Pip is more than happy to trade his oldest friend for some money and a life in London. Here again we see that Dickens understands children are rarely consistent, whereas Golding is trying to use children as a metaphor for something much bigger. To conclude I believe that Pip is by far the better portrayal of childhood. Childhood does not generally involve the lack of adult presence to so huge an extent as it does in Lord of the Flies, however the battles of child against adult and adult society such as are seen in Great Expectations do occur almost universally. I think that some qualities the reader sees in Ralph, such as the headstands, do display the kind of innocent glee a child might express, but other than that Ralph and is peers are all examples of the human race and so representative of those who rule the world, adults, and not of children who merely inhabit it. GoldingÃ¢â¬â¢s book is a political message of itÃ¢â¬â¢s time, whereas Dickens was writing a novel, but his was free from the idealism that contaminates GoldingÃ¢â¬â¢s work. DickensÃ¢â¬â¢ novel still had a point, but this point was made about the way in which his society worked and in particular his belief that money is a great corrupter. Therefore I believe that DickensÃ¢â¬â¢ Pip is the most realistic portrayal of childhood as he behaves like a child, his expressions and attitudes are all those common to children. DickensÃ¢â¬â¢ also displays a deep understanding of how children work, and this comes across in PipÃ¢â¬â¢s actions. GoldingÃ¢â¬â¢s children however are only just recognisable as children, they could easily be replaced with full grown adults and still the story would work just as well.
Friday, November 8, 2019
Technology Headaches essays Have you ever been frustrated with your computer? Misplaced you cell phone? Or could not program a VCR? Well thanks to technology we have all these modern day convinces. Unfortunately the downside, to the fast pace world of technology, are the high stress levels and even more dangerous the growing dependences. Like most people I have had the urge to smash my computer with a bat, or throw it out a window. At one time or another everyone has the urge to beat their computer, for me it is more often than most. Although the computer is a great tool that allows us to do so many different thing such as chatting online, email, shopping, and researching, the thing it does best is frustrate us. Being a computer systems information major, I have trouble shot the many problems that can occur with computers. I know the pain one feels when losing that long important essay on the computer, or having a computer freeze while chatting or playing games, or the having the computer crash, and the one program that just will not work. Computer problems can be very stressful to many people, including myself. As many people deal with technology today it is all too easy to become stressed out. With each advance in technology, which is supposed to make life easier, our daily lives get slightly more complicated. Unfortunately, it cannot be escaped. Technology is becoming apart of our ever day lives. As computers are incorporated into your everyday lives one must be careful of the health problems. High stress can lead to high blood pressure, or long hours at the computer screen can cause eye strain, improper posture which can cause back problems, and even repetitive typing may lead to carpel tunnel syndrome. When working with computers or any technology one should take be patient and try not to stress out. Every so often take a break from the computer, step away stretch and get a breath of fresh air outside. ...
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
Jones v. Clear Creek ISD (1992) If government officials do not have the authority to write prayers for public school students or even to encourage and endorse prayers, can they allow the students themselves vote on whether or not to have one of their own recite prayers during school? Some Christians tried this method of getting official prayers into public schools, and the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals ruled that its constitutional for students to vote on having prayers during graduation ceremonies. Background Information The Clear Creek Independent School District passed a resolution allowing high school seniors to vote for student volunteers to deliver nonsectarian, non-proselytizing religious invocations at their graduation ceremonies. The policy allowed but did not require, such a prayer, ultimately leaving it to the senior class to decide by majority vote. The resolution also called for the school officials to review the statement before presentation to ensure that it was indeed nonsectarian and non-proselytizing. Court Decision The Fifth Circuit Court applied the three prongs of the Lemon test and found that: The Resolution has a secular purpose of solemnization, that the Resolutions primary effect is to impress upon graduation attendees the profound social significance of the occasion rather than advance or endorse religion, and that Clear Creek does not excessively entangle itself with religion by proscribing sectarianism and proselytization without prescribing any form of invocation. What is odd is that, in the decision, the Court admits that the practical result will be exactly what the Lee v. Weisman decision did not permit: ...the practical result of this decision, viewed in light of Lee , is that a majority of students can do what the State acting on its own cannot do to incorporate prayer in public high school graduation ceremonies. Usually, lower courts avoid contradicting higher court rulings because they are obligated to adhere to precedent except when radically different facts or circumstances force them to reconsider previous rulings. Here, though, the court didnt provide any justification for effectively reversing principle established by the Supreme Court. Significance This decision seems to contradict to the decision in Lee v. Weisman, and indeed the Supreme Court ordered the Fifth Circuit Court to review its decision in light of Lee. But the Court ended up standing by its original judgment. Some things are not explained in this decision, however. For example, why is prayer in particular singled out as a form of solemnizing, and it is just a coincidence that a Christian form of solemnization is picked? It would be easier to defend the law as secular if it only called for solemnization generally while singling out prayer alone at the very least serves to reinforce the privileged status of Christian practices. Why is such a thing put up to a student vote when exactly that is least likely to take into account the needs of minority students? The law presumes that its legitimate for a majority of students to vote to do something at an official school function which the state itself is forbidden from doing. And why is the government permitted to decide for others what does and does not qualify as permitted prayer? By stepping in and asserting authority over what sorts of prayer are permitted, the state is in effect endorsing any prayers which are delivered, and thats precisely what the Supreme Court has found to be unconstitutional. It was because of that last point that the Ninth Circuit Court came to a different conclusion in Cole v. Oroville.
Monday, November 4, 2019
Helpful advice on how to write with style - Essay Example One can feel the heart-warming and invigorating fragrance in a rose garden, not in the garbage dump. Good literature emerges from noble language and feelings. Various factors influence the evolvement and development of a language. It influences the thought-processes of an individual. For example, the impact on the mind of a reader by reading Karl Marx will be different from reading the dramas by Shakespeare or by reading the love-poems of Keats! In addition, political and economic causes also contribute to the decline of a language. George Orwell (2004) in his essay Politics and the English Language, writes, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦.it is not due simply to the bad influence of this or that individual writer. But an effect can become a cause, reinforcing the original cause and producing the same effect in an intensified form, and so on indefinitely.Ã¢â¬ If the social conditions are bad, its influence on expressions of the people and language will also be bad. Thought processes of the individ uals needs to be refined for good thoughts to sprout. The wise saying goesÃ¢â¬âwhen the thoughts are changed, the mind is changed. When the HelpfulÃ¢â¬ ¦.2 mind changes for the better, it will generate better thoughts which in turn are the cause for producing good literature. Good style will flow automatically. Writing in style is the gift of God, intelligently cultivated. Hard work is the foundation for success in any area, and so is the case with good writing style. Some of the important points that contribute to writing in style are: 1. Avoid ugliness and repetition of the same feelings by using synonyms. 2. Write precisely, read the essay several times, and edit it constructively. Delete all the verbiage. 3. Do not say something the meaning of which is unclear to you. Your opinions need to be without ambiguity, for their clear expression. 4. The reader forms his opinion on the basis of your writing, not on the basis of what is in your mind. 5. Incompetence or incompleteness of the information tendered cannot be condoned. Research your facts well, before incorporating them in your essay. 6. Let the metaphors that you use create before your mind vibrant thought processes and a likeable visual image. Shun worn-out metaphors. 7. Remain strongly interested what you are saying and let it be the reflection of your true thought processes. HelpfulÃ¢â¬ ¦.3 8. Do not pervert the phrases, if the meaning is not clear to you. 9. Give preference to active voice. 10. Avoid slovenliness and vagueness. 11. Borrowing words from Greek or any language for the sake of style is a misconception. It doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t contribute to the enhancement of the writing style. 12. Let the sentences be stronger, shorter and clearer. They will be more effective. 13. Do not develop your writing style with the perspective of readers. Do not get confused with the pre-assessment as to what would be the opinion of the readers. When your teacher tells you to improve your style, he is not asking you to give up your original style; he only suggests improvements to make it more elegant and persuasive. 14. Proper communication of the ideas is important. Acquiring knowledge is fine, but not imitating otherÃ¢â¬â¢s style. 15. Give your frank opinions, but when in doubt, be conservative. 16. Hold the attention of the readers by being just and equitable. 17. Filler words and common phrases may irritate the readers. This is as good as taking a circuitous route to reach the destination
Saturday, November 2, 2019
How has the solicitor's regulation changed in the UK - Essay Example In this paper, a position is taken that the most effective form of change to regulation relating to solicitors can only achieve its intended purposes if the changes are comprehensive and holistic enough. In the light of this, changes that have taken place over the years by way of training system as well as regulatory structure governing solicitors are all subjected to critical review. There will also be a special review of the Human Rights Act 1998 to examine how it has impacted on the regulation of solicitors. The issue of self-regulation by the solicitorsÃ¢â¬â¢ profession will also be reviewed. Training and ethics are two important phenomena in ensuring quality standard of practice by solicitors everywhere across the globe (Cooper, 2013). This is because through training, prospective lawyers are given the kind of education and professional nurturing, needed to ensure that they go about their duties as exceptional professionals. Meanwhile, a personÃ¢â¬â¢s individual ethical standards can also be a determining factor as to whether or not the person would heed to training instructions and practice professionally (Boon, 2014). To reconcile these two positions therefore, it is important that the training system for solicitors in UK will be structured in a way that ensures that only people who can be deemed as ethical individuals are admitted. Indeed many have questioned the importance of ensuring that admission for training for solicitors is based on only people who can be considered as ethical individuals. In response to this, Case (2013) observed that the law profession is a highly sensitive one, requiring strong and high standards of practice to ensure that a practitioner will hold fast to doing what is right. What this means is that lawyers have a lot of discretion in their practice as far as their actions are based on law. For this reason, it is