Tuesday, December 31, 2019

The Invention of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

Magnetic resonance imaging (commonly called MRI) is a method of looking inside the body without using surgery, harmful dyes, or X-rays. Instead, MRI scanners use magnetism and radio waves to produce clear pictures of the human anatomy. Foundation in Physics MRI is based on a physics phenomenon discovered in the 1930s called nuclear magnetic resonance—or NMR—in which magnetic fields and radio waves cause atoms to give off tiny radio signals. Felix Bloch and Edward Purcell, working at Stanford University and Harvard University, respectively, were the ones who discovered NMR. From there, NMR spectroscopy was used as a means to study the composition of chemical compounds. The First MRI Patent In 1970, Raymond Damadian, a medical doctor and research scientist, discovered the basis for using magnetic resonance imaging as a tool for medical diagnosis. He found that different kinds of animal tissue emit response signals that vary in length, and, more importantly, that cancerous tissue emits response signals that last much longer than non-cancerous tissue. Less than two years later, he filed his idea for using magnetic resonance imaging as a tool for medical diagnosis with the U.S. Patent Office. It was entitled Apparatus and Method for Detecting Cancer in Tissue. A patent was granted in 1974, producing the worlds first patent issued in the field of MRI. By 1977, Dr. Damadian completed construction of the first whole-body MRI scanner, which he dubbed Indomitable. Rapid Development Within Medicine Since that first patent was issued, the medical use of magnetic resonance imaging has developed rapidly. The first MRI equipment in health was available at the beginning of the 1980s. In 2002, approximately 22,000 MRI cameras were in use worldwide, and more than 60 million MRI examinations were performed. Paul Lauterbur and Peter Mansfield In 2003, Paul C. Lauterbur and Peter Mansfield were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging. Paul Lauterbur, a professor of chemistry at the State University of New York at Stony Brook, wrote a paper on a new imaging technique that he termed zeugmatography (from the Greek zeugmo meaning yoke or a joining together). His imaging experiments moved science from the single dimension of NMR spectroscopy to the second dimension of spatial orientation—a foundation of MRI. Peter Mansfield of Nottingham, England further developed the utilization of gradients in the magnetic field. He showed how the signals could be mathematically analyzed, which made it possible to develop a useful imaging technique. Mansfield also showed how extremely fast imaging could be achieved. How Does MRI Work? Water constitutes about  two-thirds  of a humans body weight, and this high water content explains why magnetic resonance imaging has become widely applicable in medicine. In many  diseases, the pathological process results in changes  in  the water content among tissues and organs, and this is reflected in the MR image. Water is a molecule composed of hydrogen and oxygen atoms. The  nuclei of the hydrogen atoms  are able to act as microscopic compass needles. When the body is exposed to a strong magnetic field, the nuclei of the hydrogen atoms are directed into order—stand at attention. When submitted to pulses of radio waves, the energy content of the nuclei changes. After the pulse, the nuclei return to their previous state and a resonance wave is emitted. The small differences in the oscillations of the nuclei are detected with advanced computer processing; it is possible to build up a three-dimensional image that reflects the chemical structure of the tissue, including differences in the water content and in movements of the water molecules. This results in a very detailed image of tissues and organs in the investigated area of the body. In this manner, pathological changes can be documented.

Sunday, December 22, 2019

Drugs And Abuse Of Drugs - 1564 Words

Drugs and Abuse Abuse of drugs can have effects on the user even after the use of drugs has stopped. Different drugs produce different effects, depending on the user, type of drug, and severity of abuse. New research is done every day in the area of drug abuse that makes finding accurate results on the broad topic of drug abuse very difficult. From the most recent studies only can one find data that is presently accepted as correct. These numerous studies provide enough data to explain the effects of both legal and illegal drugs. To understand how drugs work, it is Important to understand the changes that take place in different areas of the body when drugs take effect. Found in the brain are the synapses, the interaction point of two neurons (Perrine, 1996). The synapses in the brain are often the main target of a drug, altering the perception of something at the point of perception. When a drug is taken, it attaches itself to receptors in the brain, which have a pattern chemically similar to the neurotransmitters that send and receive messages in the brain. Certain drugs can attach themselves to these receptors, they may become blocked, and the neurotransmitters originally being sent by the brain s neurons are forced to wander around the brain until it can find another similar receptor, possibly creating a false signal (Perrine, 1996). The physiological responses created by these false signals, sent by both the drug and the extraneous neurotransmitters are whatShow MoreRelatedThe Drug Of Drug Abuse1143 Word s   |  5 PagesAmerica has been fighting drug abuse for over a century. Four Presidents have waged a â€Å"War on Drugs† and unfortunately, this war continues to be lost at an alarming magnitude. Drug abusers continue to fill our courts, hospitals, and prisons. The drug trade causes violent crime that ravages our neighborhoods. Children of drug abusers are neglected, abused, and even abandoned. The current methods of dealing with this issue are not working. Our society needs to implement new and effective laws and programsRead MoreDrug Of Drug And Drug Abuse1538 Words   |  7 PagesDrug Resistance Drug use has become an increasing problem among high schoolers and teenagers around the same age. Ever since the drug war of the 1900s, drugs have been a major problem in today’s society. â€Å"Use of drugs such as opium, morphine, and other byproducts were common in twentieth century America† (Dobkin, 1998). While most students in standard high school drug education know about the use of coca leaves in Coca-Cola and the opium trade in China, drug addiction during the century is muchRead MoreDrugs And Drug Abuse2010 Words   |  9 Pagescould possibly cause such extensive drug use? Some kids give in to peer pressure because they want to be liked, to fit in? In our society some negative consequences of drug abuse is experimental where some people experiment and don’t get hook which does not lead to anything and on the other hand some people can’t handle it, and it only takes one time to developing an addiction, It effects not only that person but also t heir families and friends. People use drugs for a different reason, another causeRead MoreThe Drug Of Drug Abuse1385 Words   |  6 PagesIntroduction Cocaine is an addictive drug that comes from the coca plant. How cocaine is made and ingested are the primary differences between powdered and crack cocaine. It can be ingested in multiple ways, but inhaling and smoking are the most common. Powdered cocaine is a white substance that is snorted and absorbed through the nasal tissue. Crack cocaine is made by dissolving cocaine with an alkaline (like baking soda), then it turns into a sheet that can be crushed out into â€Å"rock† form. InRead MoreDrug Addiction : Drugs And Drug Abuse Essay1615 Words   |  7 PagesIntroduction In our society Heroin, has become an overpowering epidemic around the world, this drug is extremely addictive and has been illegal in the United States for many years. Although many individuals seem to discover a way to obtain this very lethal drug. Even though, heroin is highly addictive and used by choice by an individual with a drug addiction; the number of deaths from Heroin is escalating daily, to the point where more than 26 overdoses in one day maybe even more. This epidemic needsRead MoreDrug Abuse And Drug Addiction1257 Words   |  6 Pages Drugs had been existing since the early 15th century and society has confronted drug abuse and addiction ever since. In the modern world, drug abuse has become a problem for many individuals do to traumatic experiences, mental disorders, peer pressure and personal problems. For every addiction there is always a solution, professional assistance can help a drug addict get control of his/her life once again. Drug rehabilitation programs can be essential for drug addicts only if the victims are committedRead MoreThe Drug Of Drug And Alcohol Abuse Essay1531 Words   |  7 PagesThe movie Trainspotting is an entertaining look into the dark world of drug and alcohol abuse. Heroin is the drug of choice for the protagonist, but other substances are also consumed throughout the film: heroin, prescription medication, opium, hash, amphetamines, and alcohol are a constant presence in the story. Repeated polysubstance abuse combined with a negative social environment and a weak support structur e compounds the problems of Renton, a heroin addicted young adult man living in ScotlandRead MoreDrug Abuse1279 Words   |  6 PagesThe use of and abuse of illegal and prescription drugs are a health, social, and law enforcement problem that is affecting Americans across the country. Drug abuse is destroying the lives of many teens and adults and is also destroying families in the United States. The use of drugs is a major problem in the United States among all Americans, but drug addiction is the main cause for America s troubled teens today. Exactly what is a drug? A drug is any chemical that produces a therapeutic or non-therapeuticRead MoreDrug Abuse And Drug Addiction775 Words   |  4 Pages Drug Abuse Treatment 6.15 6.23 6.49 6.73 7.21 7.55 7.66 7.85 7.89 8.83 Percentage of Total Funding 30.9% 30.2% 29.9% 30.8% 29.0% 30.7% 31.4% 32.0% 31.3% 35.0% Drug Abuse Prevention 2.04 1.96 1.93 1.84 1.95 1.56 1.48 1.34 1.28 1.28 Percentage of Total Funding 10.3% 9.5% 8.9% 8.4% 7.8% 6.3% 6.1% 5.5% 5.1% 5.1% Total Demand Reduction 8.19 8.19 8.43 8.57 9.16 9.11 9.14 9.19 9.16 10.10 Percentage of Total Funding 41.2% 39.7% 38Read MoreDrug Abuse1622 Words   |  7 PagesDrug addiction and abuse are one of the most common public issues in the United States. Drug addiction and abuse can lead to various social issues such as homelessness, overdose, Narcan for free, children in the adoption system, etc.. According to drug abuse.gov, an estimated 271.5 million dollars are used overall in the year 2010 towards illicit drugs and prescription opioids. This epidemic is taking a toll on our younger generations because they are available for most anyone. This trend is common

Saturday, December 14, 2019

Critical Thinking and Old Man Free Essays

Directions: In complete sentences, answer the following questions. Be thorough in your responses. These are critical thinking questions, which means you will have to go beyond what is written in the story†¦you need to INFER. We will write a custom essay sample on Critical Thinking and Old Man or any similar topic only for you Order Now Your grade will depend on your thoughtful and insightful answers. Answers should be at least 2-3 complete sentences in length. Prologue and pages 3-10 (stop at the asterisk) 1. Why does Coelho open with the modified myth of Narcissus? How does the new version differ from the original one? How does it change the myth’s meaning? What might the author be suggestion about how we perceive ourselves and the world? 2. The novel opens with Santiago thinking about his sheep. What does he observe about their existence? How might the sheep symbolize the way some people live their lives? How does his observation that they â€Å"have forgotten to rely on their own instincts† foreshadow what might be coming in the novel? 3. To what degree is Santiago’s father’s observation about travelers (page 9) true about Santiago? Pages 10 (start after the asterisk)- 25 (stop at the asterisk) 1. Why does the old fortune teller say that Santiago’s dream is difficult to interpret? Why is Santiago suspicious of her? 2. The old man tells Santiago a story about a miner and an emerald. How does it connect to Santiago’s situation? What does the old man mean when he says that â€Å"treasure is uncovered by the force of flowing water, and it is buried by the same currents? † What does this quote have to do with the story of the miner and the emerald? 1) By telling the new version he wants to tell his own interpretation of narcissus. The original version is about finding inner beauty but Coelho’s version is about finding meaning of life and the life’s purpose. The difference is because it leaves out how the lake cared about to much of its beauty and less about there people. The new one reflects upon the positive outcomes as the original has a negative term. The suggestion is made through the book where Santiago had to see what the world looked like and he gave up a his parents dram and followed his own dreams no matter what. How to cite Critical Thinking and Old Man, Papers

Friday, December 6, 2019

Current Affairs Essay Research Paper Current Affairs free essay sample

Current Affairs Essay, Research Paper Current Affairs PresentationProducers of telecasting current personal businesss plans manipulate the audience s comprehension of an event and the people concerned in it. The techniques in current personal businesss frequently form a bias reading of events and hence signifiers prejudice towards certain groups. Techniques used which manipulate and create prejudices are interviews, editor gate-keeping, talking caput or storyteller, visuals and music. I will be utilizing a section from Today Tonight to turn out these points.Interviewing can pull strings audiences understanding of an event and the people concerned within it. A angle in questioning can rapidly and greatly act upon viewer s reactions and comprehension to an event. For illustration a section of Today Tonight was refering the interestingness of Perth. The showed prejudice in questioning. In support that Perth was tiring was Peter Grant ( Director of the indignation festival ) and Carrie Maculken ( The Pride President ) . In resistance of this sentiment was merely one representative of Perth Peter Natress ( Lord Mayor ) . This obvious angle in questioning gives the interviewee more statements for the land that Perth is tiring. The two interviewees together got more than twice the coverage of the Lord Mayor, Peter Natress. Another prejudice angle was the fact that both Mr Grant and Miss Maculken both shared their sentiment before Mr Natress in support of Perth even had his say. Most viewer s would hold already have been persuaded before Mr Natress was even introduced about midway through the section. Thus the viewing audiences apprehension was manipulated by the sheer coverage and arrangement of the interviews on a peculiar side, which the manufacturer choses to demo. Editor gate-keeping manipulates the audience comprehension of an event and the people concerned. What the editor chooses to demo and non to demo can do all the difference in the spectator s reaction and apprehension of the event. For ill ustration both Mr Grant and Miss Maculken had their positions on Perth emphasised when they where introduced to the camera. Mr Grant stated Its drilling and Miss Mackulken stated It empty it s tiring mentioning to Northbridge, Perth. This debut rapidly defines were each base on the issue and enforces the position that Perth is tiring. The fact that Mr Netress was non introduced until much subsequently manipulates the spectator into believing that his sentiment is non as of import. Thus the manufacturer manipulated the comprehension of the event and the people concern edThe storyteller of this current personal businesss plan manipulates the audience s comprehension of the event and the people concerned. What the storyteller says and does can make different reactions in its audience. For illustration the storyteller merely read quotation marks from the Perth is deadening point of position the determination confirms our metropolis is fring its psyche mentioning to the official torch ceremonial being held at the Burswood and non in the metropolis. Even though it was explained subsequently why it was at the Burwood ( because they are the main patron ) people will be manipulated in doing up their head before more facts have been revealed. Another statement to endorse this is I quote As far from exciting as you can acquire deadening. Even though this is a quotation mark she is saying the fact it comes from her validates it in the head of the spectator that this true. Thus the manufacturers manipulate the comprehension of the events. The ocular and music manipulate the audience s comprehension of an event and the people concerned. Visuals and music frequently work in tandem to bring forth a peculiar affect, which can pull strings its audience. For illustration on several occasions a dull inactive tune was played while ocular long shootings of empty streets, coffeehouse and coastal countries were shown. The consequence of this manipulates the spectator to hold with the position, Perth is tiring. The world in existent fact possibly that the images where taken at Mid-day, on a weekday, when traffic was at its least.The ocular in Northbridge was taken on a Wednesday dark, which besides shows unfairness to the true ambiance of Northbridge. Wednesday dark is renowned for Begin rather when people stay at place. When it was said, where are all the households it shows an unequitable position, as most households would remain at place with their kids, who have school the following twenty-four hours. Thus the visuals and mus ic work in tandem to pull strings its audiences comprehension of events.This presentation has proved to you that an episode of current personal businesss can pull strings its audience s comprehension of an event and the people concerned. The common techniques of interviews, editor gate-keeping storyteller s remarks, visuals and music are used to pull strings the spectator. Further analysis could hold involved organic structure linguistic communication to emphases that current personal businesss pull strings its audience s comprehension of events.So when you watch current personal businesss be cognizant of how its manufacturers are pull stringsing your comprehension of the event and the people concerned.Thankyou for your clip, Miss Mann, Ladies and Gentlemen